Omega-3 fatty acid treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studyBélanger SA, et al. Paediatrics & Child Health. 2009, 14(2):89-98.Supplementing the diet with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) over a period of weeks is an effective way to increase focus and attention in children. Study results revealed that compared to a group of children who were given omega-6 PUFA, omega-3 conferred the learning benefits while omega-6 did not. The results of this study also show that supplemental omega-3 is safe and easily tolerated dietary.Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomatology: Systematic review and meta-analysisBloch, MH and Qawasmi, A. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2011, 50(10):991–1000.Ten trials involving almost 700 children were included in this evaluation. Researchers concluded that in the studies reviewed, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation conferred a small but significant benefit in improving concentration and focus compared to those given the placebo.EPA supplementation improves teacher-rated behaviour and oppositional symptoms in children with ADHDGustafsson, PA et al. Acta Pædiatrica. 2010, 99:1540–1549.This randomized, controlled trial measured the effectiveness of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in 92 children. Focus and concentration improved, while impulsive behaviors decreased after 15 weeks of decreasing omega-6 intake, and increasing omega-3 intake.Omega-3/Omega-6 fatty acids for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A randomized placebo-controlled trial in children and adolescentsJohnson, M. et al. Journal of Attention Disorders. 2009, 12(5):394-401.This randomized, 3-month trial included 75 children, ages 8-18 years old with inattention and other neurodevelopmental symptoms. After taking omega 3/6 fatty acids for 6 months, attention was improved in almost half (47%) of participants.Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, cognition, and behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized controlled trialMilte, C et al. Nutrition. 2012, 28(6):670 – 677.Supplements rich in EPA, DHA, or safflower oil were randomly given to 90 children, ages 7-12. Educational and behavioral patterns were observed. Improved literacy and better behavior were noted with increases in DHA, with the greatest benefit observed in children who had other learning difficulties.Correlation between changes in blood fatty acid composition and visual sustained attention performance in children with inattention: Effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids containing phospholipids1,2,3Vaisman, N et al. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008, 87(5):1170-1180.This randomized, double-blind trial followed 83 children, ages 8-13, with impaired attention to see if n-3 fatty acid supplements would help. A significant number of the children reported better attention and increased learning performance after 3 months of taking n-3 fatty acid supplements.Effect of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients on learning and behavior problems associated with child ADHDSinn, N and Bryan, J. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. 2007, 28(2):82-91.Various developmental problems such as inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsive behaviors have been linked to deficiencies in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This study investigated using PUFA supplements in 132 children, ages 7-12 years. Significant positive outcomes, such as better focus and behavior, were found in the PUFA treatment group after 30 weeks of taking PUFA supplements.Choline transporter gene variation is associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorderEnglish, B et al. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders. 2009, 1:9033.The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) plays a critical role in the brain circuits responsible for motor control, attention, learning, and memory. Some individuals have a genetic variation that limits their ability to produce acetylcholine. Evidence from the study suggests that choline supplements may be helpful for healthy brain function.Outcome-based comparison of Ritalin® versus food-supplement treated children with AD/HDHarding, K et al. Alternative Medicine Review 2003, 8(3):319-330.Twenty children with attention, focus, and behavior issues were treated with either Ritalin® or dietary supplements. The outcomes were compared. Subjects in both groups showed improvement in attention and focus, suggesting food supplements are equally as safe and effective. Eight risk factors for attention problems were also identified and included food allergies, toxins, and nutrient deficiencies (including essential fatty acids).The effect of phosphatidylserine administration on memory and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trialHirayama, S et al. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 2013.Problems with focus and memory can lead to ongoing challenges and stress in children. This study looked at phosphatidylserine (PS) supplementation given to children with these symptoms over a period of 2 months. Increases in concentration, focus, and short-term auditory memory were observed compared to the placebo group. Dietary deficiency in essential fatty acids and phospholipids during childhood may increase the risk of concentration and focus issues. Dietary PS supplements appear to be a safe and natural strategy for improving mental performance in young children.Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children: Rationale for its integrative managementKidd, P. Alternative Medicine Review. 2000, 5(5):402-428.Problems focusing while in a learning environment is one of the most common behavioral disorders in children. It begins in childhood and often continues into adulthood. The exact cause is not known, but may come from a combination of several factors such as: genetics, nutritional deficiencies, food allergies and intolerances, sensitivity to environmental chemicals, and exposure to toxins. This paper looks at the critical role of nutritional deficiencies and the need for supplementation with vitamins and minerals, omega 3/6 fatty acids, DHA, and phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) to treat inattention, focus, and concentration problems in order for children to lead a normal and productive life.The Oxford-Durham study: A randomized, controlled trial of dietary supplementation with fatty acids in childrenRichardson, AJ and Montgomery P. Pediatrics. 2005, 115(5):1360-1366This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial looked at 117 children, ages 5-12, with developmental and coordination delays as well as impaired academic performance in reading and spelling. Over the course of 6 months, the test group was given LC-PUFA supplements while the placebo group was given olive oil. After just 3 months, 84% of the children in the LC-PUFA group reported improved focus. Between months 3 to 6, improved academic performance was noted, with highly significant gains in reading.The effect of phosphatidylserine containing Omega3 fatty-acids on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children:?A double-blind placebo-controlled trial, followed by an open-label extensionManor, I et al. European Psychiatry. 2012, 27:335–342Approximately 3-7% of school-aged children have problems with focus and attention, making it the most common neurobehavioral disorder in school-age children. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study followed 200 children and looked at the use of PS Omega-3 supplementation for symptom control. A significant number of children in the test group reported fewer impulsive and restless behaviors and increased concentration and focus. Additionally, better overall emotional wellbeing was observed in the PS Omega-3 group.