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Sharma M and Wakure A. Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery. 2013, May-Aug; 46(2): 408–418.
This review article discusses numerous prevention and treatment techniques for scar management. Among the approaches discussed, 13 clinical trials involving over 500 patients demonstrate the benefits of silicone gel to minimize abnormal scarring.
- Coconut Oil
A randomized double blind controlled trial comparing extra virgin coconut oil with mineral oil as a moisturizer for mild to moderate xerosis.
Agero AL, Verallo-Rowell VM. Dermatitis. 2004, 15(3):109-16.
Researchers compared the therapeutic effects of virgin coconut oil to mineral oil on rough, scaly, itchy skin in a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Evaluations by both researchers and study participants demonstrated that coconut oil is safe and at least as effective, and in some cases more effective, than mineral oil to soothe and moisturize skin.
Final report on the safety assessment of Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil and related ingredients.
Burnett CL, et al. International Journal of Toxicology. 2011, May;30(3 Suppl):5S-16S.
Coconut oil was evaluated and found to be safe both for use alone for beauty and personal care applications, and as an ingredient in cosmetics.
Novel antibacterial and emollient effects of coconut and virgin olive oils in adult atopic dermatitis.
Verallo-Rowell VM, et al., Dermatitis. 2008, Nov-Dec;19(6):308-15.
Researchers conducted a double blind, placebo controlled trial comparing virgin coconut oil with virgin olive oil for its effects at moisturizing skin and protecting against possible microbial colonization. Coconut oil was found to be more effective than olive oil. Monolaurin, one constituent of coconut oil, is believed to be one of the active compounds.
Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.
Rele AS and Mohile RB. Journal of Cosmetic Science. 2003, Mar-Apr;54(2):175-92.
Researchers looked at the effects of three types of oils on both damaged and healthy hair. Coconut oil was the most effective at promoting the health of hair (regardless of condition), because unlike the other oils studied, it penetrates the hair shaft and supports hair proteins.
- Nipple Balm (Shea Fat)
Anti-inflammatory and chemoprotective effects of triterpene cinnamates and acetates from shea fat.
Akihisa T, et al. Journal of Oleo Science. 2010, 59(6):273-80.
Researchers isolated and evaluated eight components of shea fat to identify potential health benefits. All eight supported a healthy inflammatory and immune response.
The effect of galactagogue herbal tea on breast milk production and short-term catch-up of birth weight in the first week of life.
Turkyilmaz C, et al. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2011, Feb;17(2):139-42.
This clinical trial involved 66 mother-newborn pairs, who were split into three groups. One group was given fenugreek tea daily; a second group was given a placebo; the third group served as the control and was given neither fenugreek nor placebo. It is not uncommon for newborn babies to lose weight their first few days, but in the fenugreek group, infant weight loss was significantly less compared to the other two groups. The fenugreek group babies also gained weight faster. The mothers who consumed the fenugreek tea had more breast milk than mothers from the other groups. Researchers concluded that fenugreek tea can promote breast milk production and healthy infant weight gain in the days immediately following birth.
The Effect of Fenugreek on Milk Production and Prolactin Levels in Mothers of Preterm Infants.
Reeder C, et al. Journal of Human Lactation. 2011, 27(1):74.
In this study, researchers concluded that fenugreek has no adverse effects on mother or baby.
The Effect of Herbal Tea Containing Fenugreek Seed on the Signs of Breast Milk Sufficiency in Iranian Girl Infants.
Ghasemi V, et al. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2015, 17(8):e21848.
In this four-week clinical trial, 78 breastfed infant girls were divided into two groups. In the first group, the mothers received fenugreek tea daily; in the other group, they received herbal tea as a placebo. Infant growth, frequency of feeding, and urine and stool output were measured. Researchers concluded that fenugreek tea supports greater breast milk sufficiency compared to the control group.
- Vitamin D
Vitamin D and the immune system.
Aranow C. Journal of Investigative Medicine. 2011, 59(6): 881-886.
This researcher examined vitamin D’s importance for immune function. Insufficient vitamin D has a negative impact on healthy immune function. Vitamin D influences both innate and adaptive immune responses in the body, and can promote more appropriate immune response in a dose-dependent manner.
Vitamin D supplementation increases calcium absorption without a threshold effect.
Aloia, J.F., et al. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2014, 100(1):299.
In this double blind, placebo controlled study, researchers looked at the effects of varying dosages of vitamin D3 on calcium absorption. Vitamin D doses ranged from zero (placebo) to 4000IU daily. At the end of the 8-week study, the data showed that the more vitamin D is consumed, the more calcium is absorbed.
Health risks and benefits from calcium and vitamin D supplementation: Women's Health Initiative clinical trial and cohort study.
Prentice, R.L., et al. Osteoporosis International. 2013, 24(2):567-80.
Researchers looked at a subset of over 36,000 postmenopausal women participating in the double blind, placebo controlled Women’s Health Initiative. The women took calcium and vitamin D supplements for approximately 7 years. Based on the data, researchers concluded that the long term use of these supplemental nutrients may help to substantially reduce the risk of hip fracture later in life.
Vitamin D intake in the United States.
Moore C, et al. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2004, 104(6):980-3.
Researchers looked at vitamin D consumption by people of all ages from both food and supplements. Across the board, vitamin D intake was inadequate. Of all groups, adult women consumed the least amount of vitamin D from food sources. Researchers concluded that more vitamin D fortified foods should be made available, and individuals should take supplements if needed to meet guidelines.
Is vitamin D supplementation necessary in healthy full-term breastfed infants? A follow-up study of bone mineralization in healthy full-term infants with and without supplemental vitamin D.
Banoli F, et al. Minerva Pediatrica. 2013, 65(3):253-60.
Researchers examined the question of whether breast fed infants need supplemental vitamin D for healthy bone mineral density. One group of infants was breastfed but received no extra vitamin D; another group of infants was breastfed but also were given 400 IU of vitamin D daily. A third group was given formula. Based on ultrasound tests, researchers determined that breastfed infants were not getting adequate vitamin D through breast milk alone. The researchers recommend that infants who get all their nutrition through breast milk be given 400IU or more of supplemental D daily.
25-hydroxyvitamin D3 status is associated with developing adaptive and innate immune responses in the first 6 months of life.
Jones AP, et al. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015, 45(1):220-31.
Researchers looked at the impact of vitamin D3 on the immune function of over 200 6-month old infants. They measured blood levels of vitamin D3 at birth and again at 6 months; they also looked at other measures of health up to 2 ½ years of age. Those with greater vitamin D levels at birth had a healthier immune response. Higher vitamin D levels at 6 months also showed health benefits. Researchers conclude that boosting vitamin D3 levels in pregnancy and in newborns can help protect against allergies later in infancy and childhood.
Vitamin D status and childhood health.
Shin YH, et al. Korean Journal of Pediatrics. 2013, 56(10):417-23.
In this article, the importance of vitamin D is discussed for its impact on immune function and overall health and wellbeing of children. All children, from infancy through adolescence, should consume a minimum of 400 IU per day of vitamin D. Vitamin D levels of pregnant women should also be optimized. Vitamin D should be supplemented as necessary.
- Alpha-GPC and Omega 3 for Prenatal
Choline: Critical role during fetal development and dietary requirements in adults
Zeisel SH. Annual Review of Nutrition. 2006, 26:229-250.
Choline is an essential dietary nutrient every cell needs for normal function. This review article looks at the importance of choline during pregnancy and the critical link it plays in healthy fetal brain development and function. The need for choline varies widely among individuals because of genetic differences.
The fetal origins of memory: The role of dietary choline in optimal brain development
Zeisel SH. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2006, 149(5 Suppl):S131-S136.
Fetal nutrition can affect organ and brain function later in life. This review discusses the beginnings of brain function in the womb and the importance of choline during pregnancy and beyond. Choline is important not just for the pregnant mother, but also later for the infant as well. Choline may also enhance memory and learning functions and may also reduce prenatal stress on the fetus.
U.S. adults are not meeting recommended levels for fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake: results of an analysis using observational data from NHANES 2003-2008.
Papanikolaou Y, et al. Nutrition Journal. 2014, 13:31.
Researchers looked at consumption of fish containing high levels of omega-3 among adults. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey covering a recent 5-year period, they determined that most adults fall short of dietary omega 3 recommendations. They concluded that in such cases, omega-3 supplements may be beneficial.
Tissue levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids during early human development.
Martinez M. Journal of Pediatrics. 1992, 120, 129..
Polyunsaturated fatty acids, or PUFAs, are highly concentrated in the brain. During fetal development and until 2 years of age, these concentrations show the fastest rate of increase during an individual’s lifetime. Of the PUFAs in the brain, DHA is found in the greatest quantity.
The effects of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on breast milk fatty acid composition over the course of lactation: A randomised controlled trial.
Dunstan JA, et al. (2007) Pediatric Research. 2007, 62, 689–694.
In a clinical trial, 98 pregnant women were given either an omega 3 DHA/EPA supplement or a placebo during the second half of pregnancy. The women who received the omega 3 had higher levels of it in their breast milk for a period of weeks. The benefit continued, as breastfed infants still had better DHA status at 1 year old. This was also associated with better infant hand-eye coordination.
Relationship between long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids at birth and motor function at 7 years of age.
Bakker EC, et al. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2009, Apr;63(4):499-504.
Researchers looked at the relationship between cord blood levels of DHA and child motor skills at 7 years of age. Higher motor skill scores at age 7 were correlated with higher levels of DHA in cord blood at birth. Researchers conclude that a mother’s DHA consumption during pregnancy affects the development of her child’s motor skills during childhood.
Duration of pregnancy in relation to fish oil supplementation and habitual fish intake: A randomized trial with fish oil.
Olsen, ML, et al. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007, 61, 976-985.
This randomized clinical trial involved over 900 women with a history of preterm delivery, who had risk factors for preterm delivery, or who were otherwise considered high risk pregnancies. Women were divided into three groups: high, medium, and low amounts of fish consumption. Each group was divided into two subgroups: one subgroup received a fish oil supplement, while the other was given a placebo. Researchers found that most of the women with a history of pregnancy complications benefited from the fish oil supplement; they were less likely to deliver their babies early.
Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on maternal and foetal erythrocyte fatty acid composition.
Dunstan, JA, et al. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004, 58, 429.
In this double blind, placebo controlled study involving pregnant women, researchers looked at the effects of fish oil on the fatty acid composition of red blood cells of both mothers and their babies. The women were given either fish oil containing DHA and EPA or a placebo for the second half of their pregnancies. The women who consumed the fish oil had higher amounts of EPA and DHA at the end of their pregnancies and for six weeks after delivery. The newborn babies whose mothers got the fish oil also had higher amounts of EPA and DHA, compared to babies in the control group.
Effect of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation of lactating women on the fatty acid composition of breast milk lipids and maternal and infant plasma phospholipids
Jensen CL, et al. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2000, 71, 292S.
Breastfeeding mothers and their babies were divided into four groups. The first three groups were given daily DHA in either supplemental form or in foods; the fourth group was the control group. The DHA in mothers’ breast milk increased in the first three groups, as did their babies’ DHA. Researchers conclude that DHA supplementation increases both breast milk and blood levels of DHA; infants benefit from these increases as well.
Cognitive assessment of children at 2.5 years after maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial.
Dunstan JA, et al. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition. 2008, 93, F45.
Researchers looked at the relationship between supplemental fish oil in pregnancy and cognitive development in children at 30 months. This double blind placebo controlled study involved 98 women and their children. Compared to a control group, children whose mothers received the fish oil had greater hand-eye coordination at age 2 ½. Researchers also noted that the fish oil supplementation was safe with no adverse effects.
Randomised controlled trial of effect of fish-oil supplementation on pregnancy duration.
Olsen SF, et al. Lancet. 1992. Apr 25;339(8800):1003-7.
Researchers looked at the effects of fish oil vs placebo on pregnancy duration. Over 500 healthy women in their 30th week of pregnancy participated in this study. The pregnancy duration of women who took 2.7 grams of fish oil per day was on average four days longer than women who took an olive oil placebo. In addition, their babies were an average of 107 grams heavier at birth. Researchers noted that in the longer pregnancies, the fish oil exerted no adverse effects on the baby or labor and delivery.
Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy.
Greenberg JA, et al. Reviews in Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2008. 1(4):162-169.
In this review article, researchers looked at the evidence for supplementing with omega-3 in pregnancy and concluded that it is beneficial. DHA is needed for babies’ brain and retinal development from the third trimester and through the first year and a half of life. EPA may be helpful in supporting DHA’s absorption. Pregnant women can benefit from additional omega-3 in pregnancy, but should limit consumption of seafood that may contain mercury. Omega-3 supplements are a good way to get the necessary DHA and EPA during pregnancy.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Pregnancy.
Coletta JM, et al. Reviews in Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2010. 3(4):163-171.
This review article looked at the benefits of omega-3 consumption during pregnancy. Omega-3 consumption in pregnancy is associated with better neurodevelopment in children. The richest sources of omega-3 come from seafood and fish oil supplements, but seafood may be contaminated with mercury and other toxins. Both the FDA and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend that pregnant women consume no more than two 6-ounce servings of seafood per week.
Cognitive enhancement by omega-3 fatty acids from childhood to old age: findings from animal and clinical studies.
Luchtman DW, Song C. Neuropharmacology. 2013. Jan;64:550-65.
This review article looked at the research for omega-3 fatty acids and its effects on brain function. Omega-3 is essential for brain development, and may contribute to healthy cognitive function in individuals of all ages.
- Omega-3/ Phosphatidylserine (PS) /
Choline /ADHD in Children
Polyunsaturated Fatty acids in children.
Lee, JH. Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. 2013, 16(3):153-61.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids and are crucial for brain and retina formation and function during pregnancy, infancy, and into childhood. Researchers recommend that PUFAs be provided to children in sufficient quantity for brain and eye health.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids of photoreceptor membranes
Anderson, RE, et al. Experimental Eye Research. 1974. 18, 205.
Researchers established the importance of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the photoreceptors (such as rods and cones) in the eye. Healthy vision requires sufficient consumption of DHA.
Docosahexanoic Acid for Reading, Cognition and Behavior in Children Aged 7-9 Years: A Randomized, Controlled Trial (The DOLAB Study).
Richardson A, et al. PLoS ONE. 2012, 7(9):e43909.
362 healthy children who were underperforming in reading skills were divided into two groups. One group was given 600 mg of DHA per day; the other received a placebo. At the end of the study period, researchers determined that DHA is a safe and effective intervention to promote better reading skills. Parents also rated their children’s behavior as improved in the DHA group.
Maturation of visual acuity is accelerated in breast-fed term infants fed baby food containing DHA-enriched egg yolk.
Hoffman DR et al. Journal of Nutrition. 2004, 134(9):2307-13.
Researchers looked at the effects of supplementing DHA in infants from ages 6 to 12 months. One group was given supplemental DHA in egg yolk daily (approximately 83mg); a second group was not given DHA. After six months, the infants receiving supplements had an average 34% increase in blood levels of DHA. The control group had a 21% decrease in DHA. The DHA babies also had greater visual acuity at 12 months compared to the babies in the control group.
Low Blood Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids in UK Children Are Associated with Poor Cognitive Performance and Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the DOLAB Study.
Montgomery P, et al. PLOS. June 24, 2013.
A study involving almost 500 school children looked at blood levels of DHA and reading, memory, and behavior. Based on the data, researchers concluded that low DHA levels in children correlated with lower scores in reading ability and working memory and higher likelihood of behavior problems.
Omega-3 fatty acid treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
Bélanger SA, et al. Paediatrics & Child Health. 2009, 14(2):89-98.
Supplementing the diet with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) over a period of weeks is an effective way to increase focus and attention in children. Study results revealed that compared to a group of children who were given omega-6 PUFA, omega-3 conferred the learning benefits while omega-6 did not. The results of this study also show that supplemental omega-3 is safe and easily tolerated dietary.
Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomatology: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Bloch, MH and Qawasmi, A. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2011, 50(10):991–1000.
Ten trials involving almost 700 children were included in this evaluation. Researchers concluded that in the studies reviewed, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation conferred a small but significant benefit in improving concentration and focus compared to those given the placebo.
EPA supplementation improves teacher-rated behaviour and oppositional symptoms in children with ADHD
Gustafsson, PA et al. Acta Pædiatrica. 2010, 99:1540–1549.
This randomized, controlled trial measured the effectiveness of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in 92 children. Focus and concentration improved, while impulsive behaviors decreased after 15 weeks of decreasing omega-6 intake, and increasing omega-3 intake.
Omega-3/Omega-6 fatty acids for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A randomized placebo-controlled trial in children and adolescents
Johnson, M. et al. Journal of Attention Disorders. 2009, 12(5):394-401.
This randomized, 3-month trial included 75 children, ages 8-18 years old with inattention and other neurodevelopmental symptoms. After taking omega 3/6 fatty acids for 6 months, attention was improved in almost half (47%) of participants.
Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, cognition, and behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized controlled trial
Milte, C et al. Nutrition. 2012, 28(6):670 – 677.
Supplements rich in EPA, DHA, or safflower oil were randomly given to 90 children, ages 7-12. Educational and behavioral patterns were observed. Improved literacy and better behavior were noted with increases in DHA, with the greatest benefit observed in children who had other learning difficulties.
Correlation between changes in blood fatty acid composition and visual sustained attention performance in children with inattention: Effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids containing phospholipids1,2,3
Vaisman, N et al. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008, 87(5):1170-1180.
This randomized, double-blind trial followed 83 children, ages 8-13, with impaired attention to see if n-3 fatty acid supplements would help. A significant number of the children reported better attention and increased learning performance after 3 months of taking n-3 fatty acid supplements.
Effect of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients on learning and behavior problems associated with child ADHD
Sinn, N and Bryan, J. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. 2007, 28(2):82-91.
Various developmental problems such as inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsive behaviors have been linked to deficiencies in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This study investigated using PUFA supplements in 132 children, ages 7-12 years. Significant positive outcomes, such as better focus and behavior, were found in the PUFA treatment group after 30 weeks of taking PUFA supplements.
Choline transporter gene variation is associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
English, B et al. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders. 2009, 1:9033.
The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) plays a critical role in the brain circuits responsible for motor control, attention, learning, and memory. Some individuals have a genetic variation that limits their ability to produce acetylcholine. Evidence from the study suggests that choline supplements may be helpful for healthy brain function.
Outcome-based comparison of Ritalin® versus food-supplement treated children with AD/HD
Harding, K et al. Alternative Medicine Review 2003, 8(3):319-330.
Twenty children with attention, focus, and behavior issues were treated with either Ritalin® or dietary supplements. The outcomes were compared. Subjects in both groups showed improvement in attention and focus, suggesting food supplements are equally as safe and effective. Eight risk factors for attention problems were also identified and included food allergies, toxins, and nutrient deficiencies (including essential fatty acids).
The effect of phosphatidylserine administration on memory and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
Hirayama, S et al. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 2013.
Problems with focus and memory can lead to ongoing challenges and stress in children. This study looked at phosphatidylserine (PS) supplementation given to children with these symptoms over a period of 2 months. Increases in concentration, focus, and short-term auditory memory were observed compared to the placebo group. Dietary deficiency in essential fatty acids and phospholipids during childhood may increase the risk of concentration and focus issues. Dietary PS supplements appear to be a safe and natural strategy for improving mental performance in young children.
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children: Rationale for its integrative management
Kidd, P. Alternative Medicine Review. 2000, 5(5):402-428.
Problems focusing while in a learning environment is one of the most common behavioral disorders in children. It begins in childhood and often continues into adulthood. The exact cause is not known, but may come from a combination of several factors such as: genetics, nutritional deficiencies, food allergies and intolerances, sensitivity to environmental chemicals, and exposure to toxins. This paper looks at the critical role of nutritional deficiencies and the need for supplementation with vitamins and minerals, omega 3/6 fatty acids, DHA, and phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) to treat inattention, focus, and concentration problems in order for children to lead a normal and productive life.
The Oxford-Durham study: A randomized, controlled trial of dietary supplementation with fatty acids in children
Richardson, AJ and Montgomery P. Pediatrics. 2005, 115(5):1360-1366
This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial looked at 117 children, ages 5-12, with developmental and coordination delays as well as impaired academic performance in reading and spelling. Over the course of 6 months, the test group was given LC-PUFA supplements while the placebo group was given olive oil. After just 3 months, 84% of the children in the LC-PUFA group reported improved focus. Between months 3 to 6, improved academic performance was noted, with highly significant gains in reading.
The effect of phosphatidylserine containing Omega3 fatty-acids on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children:?A double-blind placebo-controlled trial, followed by an open-label extension
Manor, I et al. European Psychiatry. 2012, 27:335–342
Approximately 3-7% of school-aged children have problems with focus and attention, making it the most common neurobehavioral disorder in school-age children. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study followed 200 children and looked at the use of PS Omega-3 supplementation for symptom control. A significant number of children in the test group reported fewer impulsive and restless behaviors and increased concentration and focus. Additionally, better overall emotional wellbeing was observed in the PS Omega-3 group.
Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers.
Le Chatelier E, et al. Nature. 2013. 500(7464):541-6.
In a study of almost 300 adults, researchers looked at the diversity of gut bacteria and the corresponding health markers of each individual. Those with more diverse strains of gut flora enjoyed better health, determined by specific health markers, compared to those individuals who had fewer species of bacteria in their intestines.
A healthy gastrointestinal microbiome is dependent on dietary diversity.
Heiman ML and Greenway FL. Molecular Metabolism. 2016. 5(5):317-320.
Researchers investigated the effects of diet on the diversity of gut microflora and overall health. They concluded that the more diverse the diet, the more diverse the gut bacteria, and he greater likelihood that such diversity will result in better overall health markers.
Use of probiotics and prebiotics in infant feeding.
Bertelsen RJ, et al. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Gastroentrology. 2016. 30(1):39-48.
In this review article, researchers looked at the need for, and benefits of, healthy gut bacteria from birth onward. Early in life, friendly microflora are needed for digestive and intestinal health and immune health. Variables affecting the quantity of good bacteria in infants include vaginal vs caesarean delivery, breast vs bottle feeding, and use of antibiotics for both mother and baby. Evidence suggests that probiotic supplements in infancy can contribute to overall better health.
Probiotics in early life: a preventative and treatment approach.
Hashemi A, et al. Food and Function. 2016. 7(4):1752-68.
Colonization of friendly bacteria in the gut from birth is important for immune and overall health. Premature birth, c-sections, antibiotic use, and formula feeding are associated with less-then-optimal development of the infant microbiome. By providing infants with probiotic supplements, a better bacterial balance can be achieved, which in turn will support intestinal function, a healthy intestinal barrier, and a healthy immune system.
Colostrum biological activities: A review
Gardiner, T. GlycoScience & Nutrition. 2000, 1(29):1-10.
This paper takes a close look at the role colostrum plays in healthy immune system function. Newborns consume colostrum as their first complete food, and it plays a vital role in helping their immature immune systems adapt to a new environment. Bovine colustrom is similar to human colostrum and when used as a supplement has many of the same beneficial effects. Colostrum can help to balance and support the adult immune system. It has anti-microbial properties to protect the body from all kinds of pathogens. Colostrum speeds wound healing, encourages bone repair and muscle growth, supports healthy GI function, and reduces inflammation and allergic responses in the body.
Bovine colostrum ameliorates diarrhea in infection with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and E. coli expressing intimin and hemolysin
Huppertz, H et al. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 1999, 29:452-456.
Colostrum is a safe and practical treatment option for Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other causes of diarrhea in children. This study looked at using bovine colostrum supplements in children who were hospitalized due to complications from various forms of diarrhea caused by bacteria. In the test group, bovine colostrum was well tolerated and reduced the frequency of diarrhea.
Pedimune in recurrent respiratory infection and diarrhea – The Indian Experience – The PRIDE study
Patel, K and Rana, R. Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2006, 73(7):585-591.
Respiratory diseases and diarrhea are two major causes of illness and death in developing countries. They are also two of the most common reasons why children visit a pediatrician worldwide. Children under the age of 5 may suffer these two types of illnesses frequently (up to 7-8 times a year) because the immune system is not fully mature. This study examines the effects of bovine colostrum supplementation in children, primarily under the age of six. A significant number of children in the study showed improved respiratory symptoms and function, with less frequent diarrhea while using bovine colostrum supplements, making them highly effective ways to fight these common childhood illnesses. Additionally, fewer hospitalizations from complications were reported in the test group.
Potential benefits of colostrum in gastrointestinal diseases
Menchetti, L et al. Frontiers in Bioscience. 2016, 8:331-351.
This paper explores the many beneficial effects of colostrum. Colostrum is a complex, natural biological liquid that is plentiful in immune supporting properties, nutrients, and other compounds essential for good health. Colostrum aids in quick immune system response, balances the good and bad bacteria in the gut, and helps with the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Bovine colostrum shows potential as a safe and effective supplement to improve and maintain good health.
Therapeutic potentials of bovine colostrums
Thapa, BR. Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2005, 72(10):849-852.
Colostrum is a pre-milk substance that is produced immediately after the birth of a baby. Colostrum is rich with immune supporting properties. This paper looks at the wide and varied uses for colostrum in the human body. Two of its most important benefits are stimulating and regulating the immune system and helping the body to heal and maintain itself. Bovine colostrum (BC) is similar to human colostrum and is easy to obtain in large quantities for use. It has been shown to be effective and has great potential to support and improve overall health and wellbeing.